Kenneth Raffa

Kenneth Raffa


345 Russell Laboratories
1630 Linden Drive
Madison, WI 53706



Ph.D. Washington State University-Pullman, 1980 (Entomology)
MS University of Delaware, 1976 (Entomology)
BS Saint Joseph’s College, 1972 (Biology)

Our program addresses mechanisms that drive the population dynamics of forest insects, with special emphasis on plant-insect interactions, predator-prey relationships, and insect-microbial-symbioses. We investigate each  within  the  context  of host  plant  properties  that  affect  herbivore  behavior, reproduction, and susceptibility to natural enemies, as well as herbivore counter-adaptations against multiple ecological constraints. We analyze biological thresholds and cross-scale interactions in insect outbreaks. Our study systems involve insects that pose challenges to natural resource management, so this information can improve our ability to address invasive species, sustainable production systems, biodiversity, and global change.

Our recent research highlights include: 1) How host selection behavior of individual bark beetles varies with beetle population density and thereby generates positive feedback during transitions  from  non-outbreak to outbreak conditions. These behaviors involve genetic, environmental responses to host compounds; 2) How attraction by predators to chemical signaling among herbivores can drive biochemical counter-adaptations that allow partial escape while allowing intraspecific functionality; 3) The critical role of thresholds in linking patterns with processes of insect outbreaks, specifically that tree defense is a crucial determinant of whether outbreaks occur, yet  inconsequential after they do. 4) Beetles egest bacteria in oral secretions that inhibit opportunist fungi from exploiting host trees after their defenses are exhausted by beetle mass attacks; 5) Enteric gut bacteria are crucial to susceptibility of gypsy moth to the microbial pathogen Bt. Future research will expand our results on how microscale processes such as insect-symbiont-plant interactions can have landscape-scale outcomes.

All are collaborative projects, with interdisciplinary colleagues from UW depts. Forest & Wildlife Ecol, Plant Path, Microbio, and Zool, the US Forest Service, and various universities.

2015 University of Delaware CANR Distinguished Alumnus Award
2015 Vilas Distinguished Achievement / Douglas D Sorenson Professor, UW-Madison
2012 Fellow, Entomological Society of America
2011 Silverstein-Simeone Lecture Award, International Society of Chemical Ecology
2010 Entomological Society of America Founders Award
2010 Beers-Bascom Professorship in Conservation, UW-Madison
2008 Kellett MidCareer Research Award, UW-Madison
2000 Vilas Associate, UW-Madison
1999 Robert G.F. and Hazel T. Spitze Land Grant Faculty Award for Excellence
1995 USDA Forest Service “Bridging Ideas and Partnerships” Award
1991 Glenn Pound Outstanding Researcher Award, CALS, University of Wisconsin

Selected Publications, Since 2000
Refereed Primary Journal Articles:

  • Havill, N.P., & K.F. Raffa. 2000. Compound effects of induced plant responses on insect herbivores and parasitoids: Implications for tritrophic interactions. Ecol. Entomol. 25: 171-179.
  • Aukema, B. H., D.L. Dahlsten, & K. F. Raffa. 2000. Exploiting behavioral disparities among predators and prey to selectively target pests: Maximizing bark beetle: predator removal during semiochemically based trap-out. Environ. Entomol. 29: 651-660.
  • Erbilgin, N, & K.F. Raffa. 2000. Effects of host tree species on attractiveness of tunneling pine engravers, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), to conspecifics and insect predators. J. Chem. Ecol. 26: 823-840.
  • Wallin, K.F., & K.F. Raffa. 2000. Influences of external chemical cues and internal physiological parameters on the multiple steps of post-landing host selection behavior of Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environ. Entomol. 29: 442-453.
  • Aukema, B.H., D.L. Dahlsten & K.F. Raffa. 2000. Improved population monitoring of bark beetles and predators by incorporating disparate behavioral responses to semiochemicals. Environ. Entomol. 29: 618-629.
  • Werner, S.M., & K.F. Raffa. 2000. Effects of forest management practices on the diversity of Ground-occurring beetles in mixed northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes Region. For. Ecol. & Manag. 139: 135-155.
  • Aukema, B.H., & K.F. Raffa. 2000. Chemically mediated predator free space: herbivores can synergize intraspecific communication without increasing risk of predation. J. Chem. Ecol. 26: 1923-1939.
  • Erbilgin, N. & K.F. Raffa. 2000. Opposing effects of host monoterpenes on responses by two sympatric species of bark beetles to their aggregation pheromones. J. Chem. Ecol. 26: 2527- 2548.
  • Erbilgin, N. & K.F. Raffa. 2001. Kairomonal range of generalist predators in specialized habitats. Entomol. Exper. et Applic. 99: 205-210.
  • Redmer, J. S., K. F. Wallin, & K. F. Raffa. 2001. Effect of host tree seasonal phenology on substrate suitability for the pine engraver, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Implications to population dynamics and enemy free space J. Econ. Entomol. 94: 844-849.
  • Erbilgin N. & Raffa K.F. 2001. Modulation of predator attraction to pheromones of two prey species by stereochemistry of plant volatiles. Oecologia. 127: 444 – 453.
  • Wallin, K.F., & K.F. Raffa. 2001. Effects of folivory on subcortical plant defenses: Can defense theories predict interguild processes? Ecology 82: 1387-1400.
  • Raffa, K.F. 2001. Mixed messages across multiple trophic levels: The ecology of bark beetle chemical communication systems. Chemoecology 11: 49-65.
  • Erbilgin, N., A. Szele, K.D. Klepzig, & K.F. Raffa. 2001. Trap type, chirality of alpha-pinene, and geographic region affect sampling efficiency of root and lower stem insects in pine. J. Econ. Entomol. 94:1113-1121.
  • Codella, S.G., Jr. & K.F. Raffa. 2002. Desiccation of Pinus foliage induced by conifer sawfly (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) oviposition: Effect of egg viability. Ecol. Entomol. 27: 618-621.
  • Erbilgin, N., & K.F. Raffa. 2002. Association of declining red pine stands with reduced populations of bark beetle predators, seasonal increases in root colonizing insects, and incidence of root pathogens. For. Ecol. & Manag. 164: 221-236.
  • Seybold, S.J., Bohlmann, J., & K.F. Raffa. 2000. Biosynthesis of coniferophagous bark beetle pheromones and conifer isoprenoids: an evolutionary perspective and synthesis. Can. Entomol. 132: 1-57.
  • Wallin, K.F. & K.F. Raffa. 2002. Density-mediated responses of bark beetles to host allelochemicals: A link between individual behavior and population dynamics. Ecol. Entomol. 27:484-492.
  • Wallin, K.F. & K.F. Raffa. 2002. Prior encounters modulate subsequent choices in host acceptance behavior by bark beetles. Entomol. Exper. Et. Applic. 103: 205-218.
  • Haberkern, K.E., Illman, B.L. & K. F. Raffa 2002.. Bark beetles and fungal associates colonizing white spruce in the Great Lakes region. Can. J. For. Res. 32: 1137-1150.
  • Erbilgin, N., E. V. Nordheim, B. H. Aukema, & K. F. Raffa. 2002. Population dynamics of Ips pini and Ips grandicollis in red pine plantations in Wisconsin: Within- and between- year associations with predators, competitors, and habitat quality. Environ. Entomol. 31: 1043-1051.
  • Aukema, B.H., & K. F. Raffa. 2002. Relative effects of exophytic predation, endophytic predation and intraspecific competition on a subcortical herbivore: Consequences to the reproduction of Ips pini and Thanasimus dubius. Oecologia. 133: 483-491.
  • Havill, N.P., & K.F. Raffa. 2002. Effects of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) laboratory strain and crowding on emergence of the parasitoid Cotesia melanoscela (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Entomol. News. 113: 197-202.
  • Wallin, K.F., J. Rutledge, & K.F. Raffa. 2002. Heritability of host acceptance and gallery construction behaviors of the bark beetle Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environ. Entomol. 31: 1276-1281.
  • Werner, S.M. & K. F. Raffa. 2002. Seasonal activity of adult, ground-occurring beetles (Coleoptera) in forests of northeastern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Amer. Mid. Naturalist. 149: 96-108.
  • Broderick, N. A., Goodman, R. M., Handelsman, J., & K. F. Raffa 2003. Effect of host diet and insect source on synergy of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) mortality to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki by Zwittermicin A. Environ. Entomol. 32: 387-391.
  • Erbilgin, N. & K. F. Raffa. 2003. Spatial analysis of forest gaps resulting from bark beetle colonization of red pines experiencing belowground herbivory and infection. For. Ecol. & Manag. 177: 145-153.
  • Raffa, K.F., Havill, N. P. & E.V. Nordheim. 2002. How many choices can your test animal compare effectively? Evaluating a critical assumption of behavioral preference tests. Oecologia. 133: 422-429.
  • Rieske, L.K., & K.F. Raffa. 2003. Evaluation of visual and olfactory cues for sampling three thrips species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in northern deciduous forests. J. Econ. Entomol. 96:777-782.
  • Erbilgin, N., J.S. Powell, & K.F. Raffa. 2003. Effect of varying monoterpene concentrations on the response of Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to its aggregation pheromone: Implications to the pest management and ecology of bark beetles. J Ag. & For. Ent. 5: 269-274.
  • Powell, J.S. & K. F. Raffa. 2003. Fate of conifer terpenes in a polyphagous folivore: Evidence for metabolism by gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 38: 583-601. 129.
  • Raffa, K.F. & J.S Powell. 2005. Tolerance of plant monoterpenes and diterpene acids in four species of Lymantriidae (Lepidoptera) exhibiting a range of feeding specificities. Great Lakes Entomol. 37: 117-129.
  • Haberkern, K. E. & K. F. Raffa. 2003. Phloeophagous and predaceous insects responding to synthetic pheromones of bark beetles inhabiting white spruce stands in the Great Lakes Region. J. Chem. Ecol. 29: 1651-1663.
  • Miller, D.R., K.F. Raffa, M.J. Dalusky, & C.W. Berisford. 2003. North-south variation in the response of the pine engraver, Ips pini, to lanierone in eastern North America. J. Entomol. Sci. 38: 468-476.
  • Kopper, B.J., K.D. Klepzig, & K.F. Raffa. 2003. Effectiveness of modified White‟s solution at removing Ascomycete fungi associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). For. Pathol. 33: 237-240.
  • Aukema, B.H., & K. F. Raffa. 2004. Gender- and sequence- dependent predation within group colonizers of defended plants: a constraint on cheating among bark beetles? Oecologia. 138: 253-258.
  • Dahlsten, D. L., Six, D. L., Rowney, D. L., Lawson, A. B., Erbilgin, N., & K. F. Raffa. 2003. Attraction of Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and its predators to natural attractants and synthetic semiochemicals: Implications for population monitoring in northern California. Environ. Entomol. 32: 1115-1122.
  • Wallin, K.F., & K.F. Raffa. 2004. Feedback between individual host selection behavior and population dynamics in an eruptive insect herbivore. Ecol. Monogr. 74: 101-116.
  • Dahlsten, D. L., Six, D. L,. Erbilgin, N., Raffa K. F., Lawson, A. B., & D. L. Rowney. 2004. Attraction of Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and its predators to various enantiomeric ratios of ipsdienol and lanierone in California: Implications for the augmentation and conservation of natural enemies. Environ. Entomol. 33: 1554-1561.
  • Kleiner, K.K. Ellis, D.D., McCown, B.H. and K.F. Raffa. 2003. Leaf ontogeny influences leaf phenolics and the efficacy of the genetically expressed Bacillus thuringiensis cry1A(a) d- endotoxin in hybrid poplar against gypsy moth (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 29: 2585-2602.
  • Aukema, B.H., & K. F. Raffa. 2004. Behavior of adult and larval Platysoma cylindrica (Coleoptera: Histeridae) and larval Medetera bistriata (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) during subcortical predation of Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). J. Insect Behav. 17: 115-128.
  • Broderick, N. A., K. F. Raffa, R. M. Goodman & J. Handelsman. 2004. Census of the bacterial community of the gypsy moth larval midgut using culturing and culture-independent methods. Appl. & Environ. Microbiol. 2004 70: 293-300.
  • Kopper, B. J. , K. D. Klepzig & K. F. Raffa 2004. Components of antagonism and mutualism in Ips pini – fungal interactions: Relationship to a life history of colonizing highly stressed and dead trees. Environ. Entomol. 33:28-34.
  • Aukema, B.H., Clayton, M, K. & K. F. Raffa 2004. Density-dependent effects of multiple predators sharing a common prey in an endophytic habitat. Oecologia. 139: 418-426.
  • Aukema, B.H., Richards, G.R., Krauth S.J. & K. F. Raffa. 2004. Species assemblage arriving at and emerging from trees colonized by Ips pini in the Great Lakes region: Partitioning by time since colonization, seasonal, and host species. Ann Entomol. Soc. Amer. 97: 117-129.
  • Aukema, B.H., & K. F. Raffa. 2004. Does aggregation benefit bark beetles by diluting predation? Links between a group-colonization strategy and the absence of emergent multiple predator effects. Ecol. Entomol. 29:129-138.
  • Aukema, B.H., & K. F. Raffa. 2005. Selective manipulation of predators using pheromones: Responses to frontalin and ipsdienol pheromone components of bark beetles in the Great Lakes region.. Agr. & For. Entomol. 7: 193-200.
  • Latty E. F., Werner, S. M. Mladenoff, D. J., Raffa, K. F., & T. A. Sickley. 2006. Response of ground beetle (Carabidae) assemblages to logging history in northern hardwood-hemlock forests. For. Ecol. & Manag. 222: 335-347
  • Liebhold, A.M., K.F. Raffa, & A.L. Diss. 2005. Forest type affects predation on gypsy moth pupae in Wisconsin. Agr. & For. Entomol. 7: 179-185.
  • Pinski, R.A., W.J. Mattson & K.F. Raffa. 2005. Host range and ovipositional behavior of adult Polydrusus sericeus and Phyllobius oblongus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), nonindigenous inhabitants of northern hardwood forests. Environ. Entomol. 34: 148-157.
  • Pinski, R.A., W.J. Mattson & K.F. Raffa. 2005. Composition, seasonal phenologies, and distribution of an invasive root-feeding weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex in northern hardwood forests. Environ. Entomol. 34: 298-307.
  • Aukema, B.H., Clayton, M, K. & K. F. Raffa 2005. Modeling flight activity and population dynamics of the pine engraver, Ips pini, in the Great Lakes Region: Effects of weather and predators over short time scales. Pop. Ecol. 47: 61-69.
  • Werner, S.M. & K. F. Raffa.. 2004. Comparison of methods for sampling Thysanoptera on basswood (Tilia americana, L.) trees in mixed northern hardwood deciduous forests. For. Ecol. & Manag. 201: 327-334.
  • Aukema, B.H., Werner, RA, Haberkern K.E, Illman, BL Clayton, M, K. & K. F. Raffa. 2005. Relative sources of variation in spruce beetle-fungal associations: Implications for sampling methodology and hypothesis testing in bark beetle-symbiont relationships. For. Ecol. & Manag.. 217: 187-202.
  • Delalibera, I. Jr, J. Handelsman, & K. F. Raffa. 2005. Cellulolytic Activity of microorganisms isolated from the guts of Saperda vestita (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), Ips pini, and Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environ. Entomol. 34; 541-547.
  • Werner, S.M., E.V. Nordheim, & K. F. Raffa. 2005. Impacts of the Introduced Basswood Thrips (Thrips calcaratus Uzel) on Forest Health in the Great Lakes Region. For. Ecol. & Manag. 214: 183-200.
  • Werner, S.M., M. Albers, T. Cryderman, D. Divini, R. Heyd, B Hrasovic , S Kobro, S Larsson, R. Mech, P. Niemela, M. Rousi, K Scanlon, S Weber & K. F. Raffa. 2005. Is the outbreak status of Thrips calcaratus Uzel in North America due to altered host relationships? For. Ecol. & Manag. 225: 200-206.
  • Kopper BJ. Illman BL. Kersten PJ. Klepzig KD. & KF Raffa. 2005. Effects of diterpene acids on components of a conifer bark beetle-fungal interaction: Tolerance by Ips pini and sensitivity by its associate Ophiostoma ips. Environ. Entomol. 34:486-493.
  • Aukema, B. H., A. L. Carroll, J. Zhu, K. F. Raffa, T. A. Sickley, & S. W. Taylor. 2006. Landscape level analysis of mountain pine beetle in British Columbia, Canada: Spatiotemporal development and spatial synchrony within the present outbreak. Ecography. 29: 427-441.
  • Maroja, L. S., S. M. Bogdanowicz, K. F. Wallin, K. F. Raffa & R. G. Harrison. 2007. Phylogeography of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) (Curculionidae:Scolytinae) in North America: distinctive mtDNA lineages associated with different species of host trees. Molecular Ecol. 16: 2560-2573.
  • Kersten, P. J., Kopper, B. J. , Raffa, K. F. & B. L. & Illman. 2006. High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Abietanes: Application to diterpene resin acid analysis in conifers. J. Chem. Ecol. 32: 2679-2685.
  • Schloss, P. D., I. Delalibera Jr, J. Handelsman, and K. F. Raffa. 2006. Bacteria associated with the guts of two wood-boring beetles: Anoplophora glabripennis and Saperda vestita (Cerambycidae). Environ. Entomol. 35: 625-629.
  • Vasanthakumar, A, I. Delalibera Jr., J. Handelsman, K. D Klepzig P. Schloss & K. F Raffa. 2006. Characterization of gut-associated microorganisms in larvae and adults of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman. Environ. Entomol. 35: 1710-1717.
  • Erbilgin, N, S. Mori, J.H. Sun, J.D. Stein, D.R. Owen, L.D. Merrill, K.F. Raffa, T. M. Montiel, D.L. Wood & N.E. Gillette. 2007. Response to host volatiles by native and introduced populations of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in North America and China. J. Chem. Ecol. 33: 131-146.
  • Cardoza, Y. J., K. D. Klepzig & K. F. Raffa. 2006. Bacteria in oral secretions of an endophytic insect inhibit antagonistic fungi. Ecol. Entomol. 31: 636-645.
  • Kendrick, A. P., & K. F. Raffa. 2006. Sources of insect and plant volatiles attractive to cottonwood leaf beetles feeding on hybrid poplar. J. Chem. Ecol. 32: 2585-2594.
  • Kendrick, A P., Krauth, S.J. Woodley, N.E., & K.F. Raffa. 2006. Notes on incidence and biology of the parasitoid complex of the cottonwood leaf beetle in Minnesota. Great Lakes Entomol. 38: 203-208.
  • Zhu, J., J. G. Rasmussen, J. Moller, B. H.Aukema & K.F. Raffa. 2008. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above- ground bark beetle species. J. American Statistical Association A&CS. 103: 162-177.
  • Salle, A, & K.F. Raffa. 2007. Interactions among intraspecific competition, emergence patterns, and host selection behaviour in Ips pini (Col. Scolytinae). Ecol. Entomol. 32: 162-171.
  • Cardoza, Y. J., S. Paskewitz & K. F. Raffa. 2006. Traveling through time and space on wings of beetles: A tripartite insect-fungi-nematode association. Symbiosis 41: 71-79.
  • Guan C., Ju. J., Borlee B., Williamson, L., Shen B., Raffa K., & J. Handelsman. 2007. Signal mimics derived from a metagenomic analysis of gypsy moth gut microbiota. Appl. & Environ. Microbiol. 73: 3669-3676.
  • Broderick, N.A., K. F. Raffa, K.F. & J Handelsman. 2006. Midgut bacteria required for Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal activity. PNAS. 103: 15196-15199.
  • Rasmussen, J. G.., J. Moller, B. H. Aukema, K.F. Raffa, & J. Zhu. 2007. Bayesian inference for multivariate point processes observed at sparsely distributed times. Royal Statistical Society series B. 69: 701-713.
  • McMahon, M.D., K. F. Raffa, Nordheim E. V. & B.H. Aukema. 2010. Too close for comfort: Effect of spacing distance and pattern on statistical inference of behavioral choice tests in the field. Ent. Exper. et Applic.136: 66-71.
  • Raffa, K.F., Hobson, K.R., LaFontaine, S., & B. H. Aukema. 2007. Can chemical communication be cryptic? Adaptations by herbivores to natural enemies exploiting prey semiochemistry. Oecologia. 153: 1009-1019.
  • Boone, C. K., D.L. Six, Y. Zheng,& K.F. Raffa. 2008. Exploitation of microbial symbionts of bark beetles by parasitoids and dipteran predators. Environ. Entomol. 37: 150-161.
  • Aukema, B.H, Carroll, A.L., Zheng Y., Zhu, J., Raffa, K.F., Moore, R.D., Stahl, K., & S.W. Taylor. 2008. Movement of outbreak populations of mountain pine beetle: Influences of spatiotemporal patterns and climate. Ecography. 31: 348-358.
  • Delalibera I., Jr., Vasanthakumar, A., Burwitz, BJ, Schloss, PD, Klepzig, KD, Handelsman J & K.F. Raffa, 2007. Composition of the bacterial community in the gut of the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Symbiosis. 47: 93-104.
  • Gray, R.H., C. G. Lorimer,P.C. Tobin & K.F. Raffa. 2008. Pre-outbreak dynamics of a recently established invasive herbivore: Roles of natural enemies and habitat structure in stage-specific performance of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) populations in northeastern Wisconsin. Environ. Entomol. 37: 1174-1184.
  • Yanek, M. L., & K. F. Raffa. Evaluation of Gypchek and its carrier on various Lepidoptera species under laboratory conditions. 2008. Great Lakes. Entomol. 41: 27-36.
  • Boone, C. K, Six, D. L. & K. F. Raffa. 2008. The enemy of my enemy is still my enemy: Competitors add to predator load of primary bark beetles. Ag. For. Entomol. 10: 411-421.
  • Vasanthakumar, A, I. J. Handelsman, P. Schloss, L. Bauer & K. F Raffa. 2008. Gut microbiota of an invasive wood boring beetle, the emerald ash borer: community composition and structure across different life stages. Environ. Entomol. 37: 1344-1353.
  • Cardoza, Y. J., K. D. Klepzig, J. C. Moser & K. F. Raffa. Raffa. 2008. Multipartite symbioses among fungi, mites, nematodes and the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis. Environ. Entomol. 37:956-963.
  • Raffa, K. F. Aukema, B. H., Bentz, B.J., Carroll A.L., Hicke, J.A., Turner MG, & W. H. Romme. 2008. Cross-scale drivers of natural disturbances prone to anthropogenic amplification: The dynamics of biome-wide bark beetle eruptions. BioScience. 58: 501-517.
  • Kanzaki, N, RM Giblin-Davis, YJ Cardoza, KF Raffa, W Ye, & BJ Center. 2008. Bursaphelenchus rufipennis n. sp. (Parasitaphelenchidae) and redescription of Ektaphelenchus obtusus (Ektaphelenchidae): Associates from nematangia on the hind wings of Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Nematology. 10: 925-955.
  • Boone, C.K, Six, D.L., Krauth, S.J. & K.F. Raffa. 2009. Assemblage of Hymenoptera arriving at logs colonized by Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and its microbial symbionts in western Montana. Can. Entomol. 141:172-199.
  • Robinson, CJ., P. Schloss, Y. Ramos, K. Raffa & J. Handelsman. 2010. Robustness of the bacterial community in the cabbage white butterfly larval midgut. Microbial Ecology 59: 199-211.
  • Cardoza, YJ., A Vasanthakumar, A Suazo & KF Raffa. 2009. Survey and phylogenetic analysis of the culturable microbial fauna in the oral secretions of three bark beetle species. Ent Exper. et Applic. 131:138-147.
  • Broderick, N.A., Robinson, C.J., McMahon, M.D., Holt, J., Handelsman, J., & K.F. Raffa. 2009. Contributions of gut bacteria to Bacillus thuringiensis – induced mortality vary across a range of Lepidoptera. BMC Biology. 7-11: 9pp.
  • Adams, A., Cardoza, Y., Currie, C., Klepzig, K.D. & K.F. Raffa. 2009. Effects of symbiotic bacteria and tree chemistry on the growth and reproduction of bark beetle fungal symbionts. Can. J. For. Res. 39: 1133-1147.
  • Klepzig, K.D., Adams, A.S., Handelsman, J., & K.F. Raffa. 2009. Symbioses: A key driver of insect physiological processes, ecological interactions, evolutionary diversification and impacts on humans. Environ. Entomol. 38: 67-77.
  • Allen, H.K., K.A. Cloud-Hansen, J. M. Wolinski, C. Guan, S. Greene, S. Lu, M. Boeyink, N. Broderick, K. F. Raffa, & J. Handelsman. 2009. Resident microbiota of the gypsy moth midgut harbors antibiotic resistance determinants. DNA and Cell Biology. 28: 109-117.
  • Robinson, CJ., P. Schloss, Y. Ramos, K. Raffa & J. Handelsman. 2010. Robustness of the
    bacterial community in the cabbage white butterfly larval midgut. Microbial Ecology 59: 199-211.
  • McMahon, M.D., K. F. Raffa, Nordheim E. V. & B.H. Aukema. 2010. Too close for comfort: Effect of spacing distance and pattern on statistical inference of behavioral choice tests in the field. Ent. Exper. et Applic.136: 66-71.
  • Aukema, B.H., J. Zhu, J. Moeller, J. Rasmussen & K. F. Raffa. 2010. Interactions between below- and above- ground herbivores drive a forest decline and gap-forming syndrome. For. Ecol. & Management. 259: 374-382.
  • Adams, A.S., Adams, S.M., C.R. Currie, N.E. Gillette & K.F. Raffa. 2010. Geographic variation in bacterial communities associated with the red turpentine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Environ Entomol. 39: 406-414.
  • Broderick N. A., K. F. Raffa & J. Handelsman. 2010. Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis. BMC Biology. 10: 129; 13 pp.
  • Hillstrom, M., L. Vigue, D. Coyle, K. F. Raffa & R. Lindroth. 2010. Performance of an invasive weevil, Polydrusus sericeus Schaller (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is influenced by atmospheric CO2 and host species, Ag. & For. Entomol. 12: 285-292.
  • Aukema B.H., J.S. Powell, M.K. Clayton & K.F. Raffa. 2010. Variation in complex semiochemical signals arising from insects and host plants. Environ. Entomol. 39:874-882.
  • Contarini, M, KS. Onufrieva, KW. Thorpe, KF Raffa & PC Tobin. 2009. Mate-finding failure as an important cause of Allee effects along the leading edge of an invading insect population. Entomol. Exper. Applic. 133:307-314.
  • Coyle, D R, WJ Mattson, & K. F. Raffa. 2010. Laboratory performance of polyphagous invasive weevils on the predominant woody plant species of a northern hardwood community. Environ. Entomol. 39: 1242-1248.
  • Broderick, NA, E Vasquez, J Handelsman & KF Raffa. 2010. Effect of clonal variation among hybrid poplars on susceptibility of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstakii J. Econ. Entomol. 103: 718-725.
  • Coyle, D.R, M. S. Jordan & K. F. Raffa. 2010. Host plant phenology affects performance of an invasive weevil, Phyllobius oblongus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in a northern hardwood forest ecosystem. Environ. Entomol. 39: 1539-1544.
  • Boone, C., B. Aukema, J. Bohlmann, A. Carroll, & K. F. Raffa. 2011. Efficacy of tree defense physiology varies with herbivore population density. Can. J. For. Res. 41: 1174-1188.
  • McDowell NG, JS Amthor, DJ Beerling, RA Fisher, KF Raffa & M Stitt. 2011. The interdependence of mechanisms underlying vegetation mortality. Trends in Ecol. & Evol. 26: 523-532.
  • Coyle DR, Allred AM, Kosola KR, & KF Raffa. 2011. Altered GAI activity of hybrid aspen has minimal effects on the performance of an invasive weevil, Polydrusus sericeus Schaller (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Entomol. Exper. et Applic. 138: 104-109.
  • Coyle DR, Duman JG, & KF Raffa. 2011. Temporal and species variation in cold hardiness among invasive rhizophagous weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in a northern hardwood forest. Annals Entomol. Soc. Amer. 104: 59-67.
  • Adams AS, Jordan MS, Adams SM, Suen G, Goodwin LA, Davenport KW, Currie CR, & Raffa KF. 2011. Community and genomic analysis of cellulose-degrading bacteria associated with the invasive woodwasp Sirex noctilio. Intern. Soc. Microbial Ecology 5: 1323-1331.
  • Coyle, DR, KE Clark, KF Raffa & SN Johnson. 2011. Prior host feeding experience influences ovipositional but not feeding preference in a polyphagous insect herbivore. Entomol. Exper. et Applic. 138: 137-145.
  • Hulcr, J, A Adams, K Raffa, R Hofstetter, K Klepzig & C Currie. 2011. Presence and diversity of Streptomyces in Dendroctonus bark beetle galleries across North America. Microb. Ecol. 61: 759-768.
  • Hicke, JA, CD Allen, AR Desai, MC Dietze, RJ Hall, ET Hogg, DM Kashian, D Moore, KF Raffa, RN. Sturrock, J Vogelmann. 2012. Effects of biotic disturbances on forest carbon budgets of the United States and Canada. Global Change Biology. 18:7-34.
  • Simard, M, EN Powell, KF Raffa & MG Turner. 2012. What explains landscape patterns of bark beetle outbreaks in Greater Yellowstone? Global Ecology and Biogeography. 21: 556-557.
  • Raffa RB, & KF Raffa. 2011. High fidelity receptor-mediated transduction mechanisms in insects provides insight for pharmacologic/entomologic interactions and applications. Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery. 6: 1091-1101.
  • Mason, KL, TA Stepien, JE Blum, JF Holt, NH Labbe, JS Rush, KF Raffa & J Handelsman. 2011. From commensal to pathogen: Translocation of Enterococcus 1 faecalis from the midgut to the hemocoel of Manduca sexta. mBio 2: 1-7.
  • Adams, AS, CK Boone, J Bohlmann & KF Raffa. 2011. Responses of bark beetle-associated bacteria to host monoterpenes, and their relationship to insect life histories. J. Chem. Ecol. 37:808–817.
  • Powell, EN & KF Raffa. 2011. Fire injury reduces inducible defenses of lodgepole pine against mountain pine beetle. J. Chem. Ecol. 37: 1184-1192.
  • Coyle, DR, WJ Mattson, MS Jordan & KF Raffa. 2012. Variable host phenology does not pose a barrier to invasive weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in a northern hardwood forest. Agric. & For. Entomol. 14: 276-285.
  • Powell, EN, Townsend PA & KF Raffa. 2012. Wildfire provides refuge from local extinction but is an unlikely driver of outbreaks by mountain pine beetle. Ecol. Monogr. 82:69-84.
  • Raffa, RB, N. Eltoukhy & KF Raffa. 2012. Implications of climate change (Global Warming) for the healthcare system. J. Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 37: 502–504.
  • Costa A, A Min, CK Boone, AP Kendrick, R Murphy, W Sharpee, KF Raffa & JD Reeve. 2013. Dispersal and edge behaviour of bark beetles and predators inhabiting red pine plantations. Agric. & For. Entomol. 15: 1–11.
  • Adams AA, F Aylward, SM. Adams, N Erbilgin, B Aukema, C Currie, G Suen & KF Raffa. 2013. Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naïve host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism. Applied & Environ. Microbiology 79: 3468-3475.
  • Lindgren, BS. & KF Raffa. 2013. Evolution of tree-killing in bark beetles: Trade-offs between the maddening crowds and a sticky situation. Can. Entomol. CP Alexander Review 145: 471-495.
  • Tobin, PC, LM Blackburn, RH Gray, CT Lettau, AM Liebhold, & KF Raffa. 2013. Using delimiting surveys to characterize spatiotemporal dynamics facilitates the management of an invasive non-native insect. Pop. Ecology. 55: 545-555.
  • Jamieson MA, Trowbridge AM, Raffa KF & RL Lindroth. 2012. Consequences of climate change for plant-insect and multitrophic interactions. Plant Physiol, Update. 160: 1719-1727.
  • Raffa KF, Powell EN & PA Townsend. 2013. Temperature-driven range expansion of an irruptive insect heightened by weakly coevolved plant defenses. PNAS 110: 2193-2198.
  • Coyle DR, Murphy MW, Paskewitz SM, Orrock JL, Lee X, Murphy RJ, McGeehin MA, & KF Raffa. 2013. Below ground herbivory initiates a cascade that increases abundance of Lyme disease vectors. Forest Ecology & Management. 302:354-362.
  • Boone CK, Adams AA, Bohlmann , J, Keefover-Ring , K, Mapes AC, & KF Raffa. 2013. Bacteria associated with a tree-killing insect reduce concentrations of plant defense compounds. J. Chem. Ecol. 39: 1003-1006.
  • Pfammatter JA Moser JC & KF Raffa. 2013. Mites phoretic on Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Wisconsin red pine stands. Annals Entomol. Soc. Amer. 106: 204-213.
  • Miller DR, KJ Dodds, A Eglitis, CJ Fettig, RW Hofstetter, DW Langor, A Mayfield III, A Munson, TM Poland & KF Raffa. 2013. Trap lure blend of pine volatiles and bark beetle pheromones for Monochamus spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in pine forests of Canada and the United States. J. Econ. Entomol. 106: 1684-1692.
  • Hanshew AS, Mason CJ, Raffa KF, Currie CR. 2013. Minimization of chloroplast contamination during 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of insect herbivore bacterial communities. J. Microbiol Methods. 95:149-155.
  • Coyle DR, WJ Mattson Jr., AL Friend & KF Raffa. 2014. Effects of an invasive herbivore at the single plant scale do not extend to population scale seedling dynamics. Can. J. For. Res. 44: 8-16.
  • Raffa, KF. 2014. Terpenes tell different tales at different scales. Glimpses into the chemical ecology of conifer – bark beetle – microbial interactions. J. Chem. Ecol. 40: 1-20.
  • Mason, CJ & KF Raffa. 2014. Acquisition and structuring of larval midgut bacterial communities in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Environmental Entomology. 43: 595-604.
  • Mason, CJ, JJ Coutre & KF Raffa. 2014. Plant-associated bacteria degrade defense chemicals and reduce their adverse effects on an insect defoliator. Oecologia. 3:901-910.
  • Johnson, TD, JP Lelito & KF Raffa. 2014. Responses of two parasitoids, the exotic Spathius agrili Yang and the native Spathius floridanus Ashmead, to volatile cues associated with the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Biol. Control. 79: 110-117.
  • Schwartzberg EG, MA Jamieson, KF Raffa, PB Reich, RA Montgomery & RL Lindroth. 2014, Simulated climate warming alters phenological synchrony between an outbreak insect herbivore and host trees. Oecologia. 175: 1041-1049.
  • Lee X, Coyle DR, Johnson DKH, Murphy MW, McGeehin MA, Murphy RJ, Raffa KF & SM Paskewitz. 2014. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs collected in managed red pine forests in Wisconsin. J. Medical Entomol. 51: 694-701.
  • Mason, CJ, Z Cannizzo, & KF Raffa. 2014. Influence of diet and density on laboratory cannibalism behaviors in gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar).J. Insect Behavior. 27: 693-700.
  • Mason, CJ, EL Zeldin, CR Currie, KF Raffa & BH McCown. 2014. Populations of uncultivated American cranberry in sphagnum bog communities harbor novel assemblages of Actinobacteria with antifungal properties Botany. 92: 589-595.
  • Thorn, S, C Bässler, T Gottschalk, T Hothorn, H Bussler, K Raffa & J Müller. 2014, New insights into the consequences of post-windthrow salvage logging revealed by functional structure of saproxylic beetles assemblages. PLOS ONE. 9: e101757. 8pp.
  • Book A, Lewin G, McDonald B, Takasuka T, Doering D, Adams S, Blodgett J, Clardy J, Raffa, K, Fox B & Currie C. 2014. Cellulolytic Streptomyces strains associated with herbivorous insects share a phylogenetically-linked capacity for the degradation of lignocellulose. Applied & Env. Microbiol. 80:4692-4701.
  • Aylward, FO , G Suen, PHW Biedermann, AS Adams, JJ Scott, SA Malfatti, TG del Rio, SG Tringe, M Poulsen, KF Raffa, KD Klepzig & CR Currie. 2014. Convergence of bacterial microbiota in agriculture in insects. mBio. 5(6) doi:10.1128/mBio.02077-14.
  • Arango RA, Marschalek DA, Green F III, Raffa KF, Berres ME. 2015. Genetic Analysis of termite colonies in Wisconsin. Env. Entomol. 44: 890-897.
  • Mason, CJ, JA. Pfammatter, LM Holeski & KF Raffa 2015. Foliar bacterial community of trembling aspen in a common garden. Can. J. Microbiol. 61: 143-149.
  • Mason CJ, Rubert-Nason, KF, Lindroth RL & KF Raffa. 2015. Aspen defense chemicals influence midgut bacterial community composition of gypsy moth. J. Chem. Ecol. 41: 75-84.
  • Jamieson MA, Schwartzberg EG, Raffa KF, Reich PB, & RL Lindroth. 2015. Experimental warming alters aspen and birch phytochemistry and performance traits for an outbreak insect herbivore. Global Change Biology 21: 2698–2710.
  • Mason CJ, Klepzig KD, Kopper BJ, Kersten PJ, Illman BL & KF Raffa. 2015. Contrasting patterns of diterpene acid induction by red pine and white spruce to simulated bark beetle attack, and interspecific differences in sensitivity among fungal associates. J. Chem. Ecol. 41:524-532.
  • Therrien J, CJ Mason, A Adams, BH Aukema, CR Currie, KF Raffa & N Erbilgin. 2015. Bacteria influence mountain pine beetle brood development through interactions with symbiotic and opportunistic fungi: implications to climate-driven host range expansion. Oecologia. 179: 467-485.
  • Anderegg, WRL , JA Hicke, RA Fisher, CD Allen, J Aukema, B Bentz, S Hood, JW Lichstein, AK Macalady, N McDowell, Y Pan, KF Raffa, A Sala, JD Shaw, NL Stephenson, C Tague & M Zeppel. 2015. Tree mortality from drought, insects, and their interactions in a changing climate. New Phytol. doi: 10.1111/nph.13477.
  • Bentz BJ, Boone, C., & KF Raffa. 2015. Tree response and mountain pine beetle attack preference, reproduction, and emergence timing in mixed whitebark and lodgepole pine stands. Agric. & For. Entomol 17: 421-432.
  • Lerch AP, Bentz BJ & KF Raffa. Mountain pine beetle dynamics and reproductive success in post-fire lodgepole and ponderosa pine forests in northeastern Utah. Subm. to PlosOne.
  • Fahrner, JS Albers, MA Albers, T Lanigan, R Murphy, KF Raffa & BH Aukema. 2016. Oviposition and feeding on red pine by jack pine budworm, a historically monophagous defoliator. Agric. & For. Entomol. In press. DOI: 10.1111/afe.12154.
  • Pfammatter JA, Krause A & KF Raffa. 2015. Evaluating predators and competitors in Wisconsin red pine forests for attraction to mountain pine beetle pheromones for anticipatory biological control. Env. Entomol. 44:1161-1171.
  • Pfammatter, JA DR Coyle, KJK Gandhi, N Hernandez, RW Hofstetter, JC Moser & KF Raffa. 2016. Structure of phoretic mite assemblages across subcortical beetle species at a regional scale. Environ. Entomol. 45: 53-65.
  • Buotte PC, JA Hicke, HK Preisler, JT Abatzoglou, KF Raffa & JA Logan. Historical and future climate influences on mountain pine beetle outbreaks in whitebark pines in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Subm. to Global Change Biology.
  • Miller DR, Crowe CM, Dodds KJ, Gallagin LD, DeGroot P, Hoebeke ER, Mayfield AE III, Poland TM, Raffa KF & Sweeney JD. 2015. Ipsenol, ipsdienol, and alpha-pinene: Trap lure blend for Cerambycidae and Buprestidae (Coleoptera) in pine forests of Eastern North America. J. Econ. Entomol. 108: 1837-1851.
  • Uelmen JA Jr., JG Duman, RL Lindroth, EG Schwartzberg & KF Raffa. Supercooling points of diapausing forest tent caterpillar eggs, Can. Entomol. In Press.
  • Uelmen JA Jr., RL Lindroth, PC Tobin, PB Reich, EG Schwartzberg, KF Raffa. 2016. Population source, spring temperatures, and overwintering regime interact to structure phenology of insect – plant interactions: implications to changing climate in the southern boreal forest. For. Ecol. & Mngmt. 362: 241-250.
  • Pfammatter JA, & KF Raffa. 2015. Do phoretic mite influences the reproductive success of Ips grandicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)? Environ. Entomol. 44: 1498-1511.
  • Pfammatter JA, K. Malas & KF Raffa. Behaviours of phoretic mites (Acari) during host colonization and development by Ips pini and Ips grandicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Agric. & For. Entomol. 18: 108–118.
  • Mason CJ, Lowe TM, Rubert-Nason, KF, Lindroth RL & KF Raffa. 2016. Interactions between bacteria and aspen defense chemicals at the phyllosphere – herbivore interface. J. Chem. Ecol. 42:193–201.
  • Mason CJ, AS Hanshew & KF Raffa. 2015. Contributions by host trees and insect activity to bacterial communities in Dendroctonus valens LeConte galleries, and their high overlap with other microbial assemblages of bark beetles. 2016. Environ. Entomol. 45: 348-356.
  • Johnson TD, Lelito,JP, Pfammatter JA & Raffa KF. 2016. Evaluation of tree mortality and parasitoid recoveries on the contiguous western invasion edge of emerald ash borer. Agr. & For. Entomol. In press. DOI: 10.1111/afe.12164
  • Keefover-Ring K, Trowbridge A, Mason CJ, & Raffa, KF. 2016. Rapid induction of multiple terpenoid groups by Ponderosa Pine in response to bark beetle -associated fungi. J. Chem. Ecol. 42: 1-12.
  • Book AJ, Gina R. Lewin GR, McDonald BR, Takasuka TE, Wendt-Pienkowski E, Doering DT, Suh S, Raffa KF, Fox BG & Currie CR. 2016. Evolution of high cellulolytic activity in Streptomyces. PlosOneBiology. 14(6): e1002475. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002475.
  • Arango RA, Carlson, CM, Currie CR, McDonald BR, Book AJ, Green F III, Lebow NK, & Raffa KF. 2016. Antimicrobial activity of Actinobacteria isolated from the guts of subterranean termites. Env. Entomol. 45: 1415-1423.
  • Seidl R, Donato DC, Raffa KF & Turner MG. 2016. Spatial variability in tree regeneration after wildfire delays and dampens future bark beetle outbreaks. PNAS. 113: 13075-13080.
  • Liu Z, Xin Y, Xu B, Raffa KF & Sun 2016. Sound-triggered production of anti-aggregation pheromone limits overcrowding of Dendroctonus valens attacking pine trees. Chemical Senses. 42: 49-67.


Please visit the Raffa laboratory website for information about our research program