The snow is slowly but surely melting and we are starting to think about the upcoming field season. Here in the Gratton Lab, we do most of our field work in agricultural settings. One crop we work in is corn. For those of you who didn’t grow up on a farm, you might not have had the opportunity to run through a corn field. We want to share that experience with you. This short video gives you a glimpse into a day in the field with the Gratton Lab.
Production of heat, electricity, and fuel from sustainably produced biomass could help our society reduce its use of fossil fuels--increasing energy independence, improving environmental quality, and enhancing rural economies.Our lab is working with other environmental and social scientists to evaluate different bioenergy production systems. This work explores tradeoffs between multiple ecosystem services, including provisioning of food and energy, regulation of greenhouse gases and water quality, and support of biodiversity and biodiversity services. Our largest contribution to this work involves quantifying the impacts of bioenergy cropping systems on beneficial insects, such as crop pollinators and natural enemies of crop pests.
Join us on Friday, October 26th to hear Claudio’s talk “Sustainable bio-energy landscapes: can we balance our needs for biodiversity and production?”
2 – 3pm, 184 Russell Labs (1630 Linden Drive), as part of the Department of Forest & Wildlife Ecology seminar series.
Here is a nice article from Grow magazine describing our work on sustainable bioenergy.
Read a Columbus Dispatch article featuring Tim’s and Claudio’s forecasts for how bird diversity might be affected by bioenergy production in the Midwest.
Demand for fossil fuels is increasing globally. The United States is pursuing an energy policy that aims to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels by expanding renewable energy sources. One important part of this effort is the use of bioenergy crops to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuel. Meeting energy demands could have big implications for agricultural land use. Not only will land used to grow fuel not be available for growing food, but the choice of energy crop will have large consequences in the environment.
Few studies have considered the effects of bioenergy crops on biodiversity. Bioenergy crops can be broadly categorized as “high intensity, low diversity” (HILD, corn and soybean) or “low intensity, high diversity (LIHD, hay fields and prairies). HILD crops are characterized by high fertilizer and pesticide inputs and are generally annually replanted. LIHD require fewer inputs, are more perennial, and are composed of a mix of several different plant species.
The number of plant species in a field can influence the number of species on a landscape. In general, HILD crops are expected to support fewer species than LIHD crops. The number of bird species is often considered to be a good indicator of the number of animal species in a community. An active group of professional and amateur bird watchers involved with the North American Breeding Bird Survey have produced useful data on the number of bird species in landscapes across North America. Using this data, Meehan et al. developed a model to predict the number of bird species in different future land-use scenarios. Specifically, they contrasted two extremes scenarios for bioenergy crops on marginal lands in the Upper Midwest: (1) changing 9.5 million ha of LIHD into HILD and (2) changing 8.3 million ha of HILD into LIHD. These two scenarios represent opposite ends of the spectrum, moving to mostly perennial (LIHD) or mostly annual (HILD) bioenergy crops on marginal lands.
Their model predicted that changing to a more perennial landscape (hay fields and prairies that are not re-planted every year) would result in more species of birds (up to 200% more) in the landscape while a more annual landscape (corn and soybeans fields) would result in fewer species of birds (up to 65% fewer) in the landscape. This is especially the case for rare grassland birds of particular conservation interest. Which crops are used for producing bioenergy will have consequences for many aspects of the environment, including the number of bird species. It is important to consider all of the costs and benefits of our energy policies.