Ned Rubert-Nason has successfully published the results from his Aspen Freeze Study in Plant, Cell and Environment. The study showed that vernal freeze damage to aspen alters phytochemistry and plant-insect interactions (indicated by faster reproduction of aphids on trees with prior damage).
These results suggest that even a single damaging vernal freeze event can have long term consequences for plant-insect interactions through effects on plant growth and chemistry. Additionally, variable responses among genotypes suggests that increases in the frequency of vernal freeze events, like those predicted to occur in temperate regions, could influence natural selection.
Much research has focused on immediate effects of climate change consequences for forest tree health, so this study helps fill a gap concerning cascading effects on trees and their associated communities as a result of a changing climate.