Selected Publications

Interactions Across Multiple Levels of Scale: Chemical Signaling, Population Thresholds, Responses to Anthropogenic Change

Raffa, K.F., & A.A. Berryman.  1983.  The role of host plant resistance in the colonization behavior and ecology of bark beetles.  Ecol. Monogr.  53: 27-49.

 

Raffa, K.F., & A.A. Berryman.  1987.  Interacting selective pressures in conifer-bark beetle systems:  A basis for reciprocal adaptations?  Amer. Nat. 129: 234-262.

 

Raffa, K.F. & E.B. Smalley. 1995. Interaction of pre-attack and induced monoterpene concentrations in conifer defense against bark beetle-microbial complexes.  Oecologia.  102: 285-295.

 

Raffa, K.F. 2001.  Mixed messages across multiple trophic levels:  The ecology of bark beetle chemical communication systems.  Chemoecology  11: 49-65.

 

Aukema, B.H., & K. F. Raffa.  2002.  Relative effects of exophytic predation, endophytic predation and intraspecific competition on a subcortical herbivore:  Consequences to the reproduction of Ips pini and Thanasimus dubius.  Oecologia. 133: 483-491.

 

Wallin, K.F., J. Rutledge, & K.F. Raffa. 2002. Heritability of host acceptance and gallery construction behaviors of the bark beetle Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  Environ. Entomol.  31: 1276-1281.

 

Aukema, B.H., & K. F. Raffa.  2004. Gender- and sequence- dependent predation within group colonizers of defended plants: a constraint on cheating among bark beetles?  Oecologia.  138: 253-258.

 

Wallin, K.F., & K.F. Raffa. 2004.  Feedback between individual host selection behavior and population dynamics in an eruptive insect herbivore.  Ecol. Monogr.  74: 101-116.

 

Aukema, B.H., & K. F. Raffa.  2004. Does aggregation benefit bark beetles by diluting predation?  Links between a group-colonization strategy and the absence of emergent multiple predator effects. Ecol. Entomol. 29:129-138.

 

Aukema, B. H., A. L. Carroll, J. Zhu, K. F. Raffa, T. A. Sickley, & S. W. Taylor. 2006. Landscape level analysis of mountain pine beetle in British Columbia, Canada: Spatiotemporal development and spatial synchrony within the present outbreak. Ecography.  29: 427-441.

 

Maroja, L. S., S. M. Bogdanowicz, K. F. Wallin, K. F. Raffa & R. G. Harrison. 2007. Phylogeography of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) (Curculionidae:Scolytinae) in North America: distinctive mtDNA lineages associated with different species of host trees. 16: 2560-2573

 

Raffa KF , Aukema BH, Erbilgin N, Klepzig KD, & Wallin, KF. 2005.  Interactions among conifer terpenoids and bark beetles across multiple levels of scale: An attempt to understand links between population patterns and physiological processes.  Rec. Adv. Phytochem. 39:  80-118.

 

Raffa, K. F. Aukema, B. H., Bentz, B.J., Carroll A.L., Hicke, J.A., Turner MG, & W. H. Romme. 2008. Cross-scale drivers of natural disturbances prone to anthropogenic amplification: The dynamics of biome-wide bark beetle eruptions. BioScience. 58: 501-517

 

Boone, C., B. Aukema, J. Bohlmann, A. Carroll, & K. F. Raffa. 2011. Efficacy of tree defense physiology varies with herbivore population density.  Can. J. For. Res. 41: 1174-1188.

 

Powell, EN, Townsend PA & KF Raffa. 2012. Wildfire provides refuge from local extinction but is an unlikely driver of outbreaks by mountain pine beetle. Ecol. Monogr. 82:69-84.

 

 

Raffa KR, Powell EN & PA Townsend. 2013. Temperature-driven range expansion of an irruptive insect heightened by weakly coevolved plant defenses. PNAS 110: 2193-2198.

 

Jamieson MA, Trowbridge AM, Raffa KF & RL Lindroth. 2012. Consequences of climate change for plant-insect and multitrophic interactions. Plant Physiol, Update. 160: 1719-1727.

 

 

Lindgren, BS. & KF Raffa. 2013. Evolution of tree-killing in bark beetles: Trade-offs between the maddening crowds and a sticky situation. Can. Entomol. CP Alexander Review 145: 471-495.

 

Raffa, KF. 2014. Terpenes tell different tales at different scales. Glimpses into the chemical ecology of conifer  – bark beetle – microbial interactions. J. Chem. Ecol. 40: 1-20.

 

Schwartzberg EG, MA Jamieson, KF Raffa, PB Reich, RA Montgomery & RL Lindroth. 2014,  Simulated climate warming alters phenological synchrony between an outbreak insect herbivore and host trees. Oecologia. 175: 1041-1049.

 

Jamieson MA, Schwartzberg EG, Raffa KF, Reich PB, & RL Lindroth. 2015. Experimental warming alters aspen and birch phytochemistry and performance traits for an outbreak insect herbivore. Global Change Biology 21: 2698–2710.

 

Mason CJ, Klepzig KD, Kopper BJ, Kersten PJ, Illman BL & KF Raffa. 2015. Contrasting patterns of diterpene acid induction by red pine and white spruce to simulated bark beetle attack, and interspecific differences in sensitivity among fungal associates. J. Chem. Ecol. 41: 524-532.

 

Anderegg, WRL , JA Hicke, RA Fisher, CD Allen, J Aukema, B Bentz, S Hood, JW Lichstein, AK Macalady, N McDowell, Y Pan, KF Raffa, A Sala, JD Shaw, NL Stephenson, C Tague & M Zeppel.  2015. Tree mortality from drought, insects, and their interactions in a changing climate. New Phytol. doi: 10.1111/nph.13477.

 

Bentz BJ, Boone, C., & KF Raffa. 2015. Tree response and mountain pine beetle attack preference, reproduction, and emergence timing in mixed whitebark and lodgepole pine stands. Agric. & For. Entomol 17: 421-432.

 

 

Raffa KF, Grégoire J-C, & Lindgren BS. 2015. Natural history and ecology of bark beetles. Chpt. 1, pp 1-40, In Vega FE & Hofstetter RW, Bark Beetles: Biology and Ecology of Native and Invasive Species. Elsevier, New York, NY.  620 pp.

 

Raffa KF, Aukema BH, Bentz BJ, Carroll AL, Hicke JA & Kolb TE. 2015. Responses of tree-killing bark beetles to a changing climate. In Bjorkman C & Niemela P.  Climate Change and Insect Pests, CABI, Wallingfored England. Pp. 173-201.

 

Uelmen JA Jr., RL Lindroth, PC Tobin, PB Reich, EG Schwartzberg, KF Raffa. 2016. Population source, spring temperatures, and overwintering regime interact to structure phenology of insect – plant interactions: implications to changing climate in the southern boreal forest. For. Ecol. & Mngmt. 362: 241-250.

 

Lindroth, RL & KF Raffa. 2016. Experimental approaches for assessing invertebrate responses to global change factors. In Johnson, SN & TH Jones (eds.) Invertebrates and Global Climate Change. Wiley Blackwell.

 

Buotte PC, JA Hicke, HK Preisler, JT Abatzoglou, KF Raffa & JA Logan. 2016. Historical and future climate influences on mountain pine beetle outbreaks in whitebark pines in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Global Change Biology. In Press.

 

Keefover-Ring K, Trowbridge A, Mason CJ, & Raffa, KF. 2016. Rapid induction of multiple terpenoid groups by Ponderosa Pine in response to bark beetle -associated fungi.  J. Chem. Ecol.  42: 1-12.

 

Raffa KF, Anderson MN & Schlyter S. 2016. Host selection by bark beetles” Playing the odds in a high-stakes game. In Tittiger C & Blomquist G. in Pine Bark Beetles, Advances in Insect Physiology. Elsevier. London. 1-74.

Tritrophic Interactions 

Raffa, K.F., & K. D. Klepzig.  1989.  Chiral escape of bark beetles from predators responding to bark beetle pheromones.  Oecologia.  80: 566-569.

 

Raffa, K.F.  1991.  Induced defensive reactions in conifer-bark beetle systems.  Pages 245-276.  In:  D.W. Tallamy and M.J. Raupp (eds.), Phytochemical Induction by  Herbivores.  Academic Press.  NY.

 

Krause, S.C., & K.F. Raffa.  1992.  Comparison of insect, fungal, and mechanically induced defoliation of larch:  Effects on plant productivity and host suitability and availability.  Oecologia.  90: 411-416.

 

Raffa, K.F. & D.L. Dahlsten.  1995.  Differential responses among natural enemies and prey to bark beetle pheromones.  Oecologia.  102: 17-23.

 

Codella, S.G., & K.F. Raffa.  1995.  Host plant influence on chemical defense in conifer sawflies (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae).  Oecologia.  104:1-11.

 

Rieske, L.K., & K.F. Raffa.  1995.  Ethylene emission by a deciduous tree, Tilia americana, in response to feeding by the introduced basswood thrips, Thrips calcaratus.  J. Chem. Ecol.  21: 187-197.

 

Codella, S.G., & K.F. Raffa. 1996.  Individual and social components of wood ant response to conifer sawfly defense behavior (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Diprionidae).  Anim. Behav.  52: 801-811.

 

Raffa, K.F., Krause, S.C., & P. Reich.  1998.  Long-term influence of defoliation on Pinus resinosa suitability to insect herbivores feeding on diverse plant parts.  Ecology.  79: 352-364.

 

Hofstetter, R.W., & K.F. Raffa.  1998.  Endogenous and exogenous factors affecting the orientation and development of the gypsy moth egg parasite, Ooencyrtus kuvanae.  Entomol. Exper. et Applic.  88: 123-135.

 

Kleiner, K.W., Raffa, K.F., & R.E. Dickson, 1999.  Partitioning of 14C labeled photosynthate to allelochemicals and primary metabolites in source and sink leaves of aspen:  Evidence for phenolic turnover.  Oecologia 119: 408-418.

 

Havill, N.P., & K.F. Raffa. 1999.   Effects of eliciting treatment and genotypic variation on induced resistance in Populus:  Impacts on gypsy moth development and feeding behavior.  Oecologia.  120: 295-303.

 

Havill, N.P., & K.F. Raffa.  2000. Compound effects of induced plant responses on  insect herbivores and parasitoids:  Implications for tritrophic interactions. Ecol.  Entomol. 25: 171-179.

 

Wallin, K.F., & K.F. Raffa.  2001. Effects of folivory on subcortical plant defenses: Can defense theories predict interguild processes?  Ecology 82: 1387-1400.

 

Codella, S.G., Jr. & K.F. Raffa. 2002. Desiccation of Pinus  foliage induced by conifer sawfly (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) oviposition:  Effect of egg viability.  Ecol. Entomol.  27: 618-621.

 

Kleiner, K.K. Ellis, D.D., McCown, B.H. and K.F. Raffa. 2003. Leaf ontogeny influences leaf phenolics and the efficacy of the genetically expressed Bacillus thuringiensis cry1A(a) d-endotoxin in hybrid poplar against gypsy moth (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae).  J. Chem. Ecol.. 29: 2585-2602.

 

Kendrick, A. P., & K. F. Raffa.  2006. Sources of insect and plant volatiles attractive to cottonwood leaf beetles feeding on hybrid poplar.  J. Chem. Ecol.  32: 2585-2594.

 

Boone, C. K., D.L. Six, Y. Zheng,& K.F. Raffa.  2008. Exploitation of microbial symbionts of bark beetles by parasitoids and dipteran predators. Environ. Entomol. 37: 150-161.

 

Boone, C. K, Six, D. L.  & K. F. Raffa. 2008. The enemy of my enemy is still my enemy: Competitors add to predator load of primary bark beetles. Ag. For. Entomol. 10: 411-421.

 

Costa A, A Min, CK Boone, AP Kendrick, R Murphy, W Sharpee, KF Raffa & JD Reeve. 2013. Dispersal and edge behaviour of bark beetles and predators inhabiting red pine plantations.  Agric. & For. Entomol. 15: 1–11

 

Johnson, TD, JP Lelito & KF Raffa. 2014. Responses of two parasitoids, the exotic Spathius agrili Yang and the native Spathius floridanus Ashmead, to volatile cues associated with the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire.  Biol. Control. 79: 110-117.

 

Pfammatter JA, Krause A & KF Raffa. 2015. Evaluating predators and competitors in Wisconsin red pine forests for attraction to mountain pine beetle pheromones for anticipatory biological control. Env. Entomol. 44:1161-1171.

Effects of Belowground Herbivory on Above-Ground Processes 

Hunt, D.W.A., & K.F. Raffa.  1989.  Attraction of the pine root collar weevil, Hylobius radicis, and the pitch-eating weevil, Pachylobius picivorus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to ethanol and turpentine in pitfall traps.  Environ. Entomol.  18: 351-355.

 

Klepzig, K.D., K.F. Raffa, & E.B. Smalley.  1991.  Association of insect-fungal complexes with Red Pine Decline in Wisconsin.  For. Sci. 37: 1119-1139.

 

Klepzig, K.D., E.L. Kruger, E.B. Smalley, & K.F. Raffa.  1995.  Effects of biotic and abiotic stress on the induced accumulation of terpenes and phenolics in red pines inoculated with a bark beetle vectored fungus.  J. Chem. Ecol.  21: 601-626.

 

Klepzig, K.D., Smalley, E.B., & K.F. Raffa.  1996.  Combined chemical defenses against insects and fungi associated with a forest decline disease.  J. Chem. Ecol.  22:  1367-1388.

 

Hoffman, G.D., D.W.A. Hunt, S.M. Salom, & K.F. Raffa.  1997.  Reproductive readiness and niche differences affect conifer root weevil responses to simulated host odors.  Environ. Entomol.  26: 91-100.

 

Erbilgin, N., & K.F. Raffa.  2002.  Association of declining red pine stands with reduced populations of bark beetle predators, seasonal increases in root colonizing insects, and incidence of root pathogens.  For. Ecol. & Manag. 164: 221-236.

 

Erbilgin, N. & K. F. Raffa. 2003.  Spatial analysis of forest gaps resulting from bark beetle colonization of red pines experiencing belowground herbivory and infection.  For. Ecol. & Manag. 177: 145-153.

 

Coyle, D., W. Mattson, & K. Raffa. 2008. Invasive root feeding insects in natural forest ecosystems of North America. Pp. 146-162, In S. Johnson & P. Murray (eds), Root Feeders: an ecosystem perspective. CABI.

 

Aukema, B.H., J. Zhu, J. Moeller, J. Rasmussen  & K. F. Raffa. 2010. Interactions between below- and above- ground herbivores drive a forest decline and gap-forming syndrome. For. Ecol. & Management.  259: 374-382.

***

Coyle DR, Murphy MW, Paskewitz SM, Orrock JL, Lee X, Murphy RJ, McGeehin MA, & KF Raffa. 2013. Belowground herbivory initiates a cascade that increases abundance of Lyme disease vectors. Forest Ecology & Management. 302:354-362.

 

Lee X, Coyle DR, Johnson DKH, Murphy MW, McGeehin MA, Murphy RJ, Raffa KF & SM Paskewitz. 2014. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs collected in managed red pine forests in Wisconsin. J. Medical Entomol. 51: 694-701.

Symbiotic Associations among Microorganisms and Insects

Paine, T.D., K.F. Raffa, & T.C. Harrington.  1997.  Interactions among scolytid bark beetles, their associated fungi, and host conifers.  Ann. Rev. Entomol.  42: 179-206.

 

Haberkern, K.E., Illman, B.L. & K. F. Raffa . 2002.. Bark beetles and fungal associates colonizing white spruce in the Great Lakes region.  Can. J. For. Res.  32: 1137-1150.

 

Broderick, N. A., K. F. Raffa, R. M. Goodman & J. Handelsman.  2004. Census of the bacterial  community of the gypsy moth larval midgut using culturing and culture-independent methods. Appl. & Environ. Microbiol. 2004 70: 293-300.

 

Kopper, B. J. , K. D. Klepzig & K. F. Raffa   2004. Components of antagonism and mutualism in Ips pini – fungal interactions: Relationship to a life history of colonizing highly stressed and dead trees. Environ. Entomol. 33:28-34.

 

Aukema, B.H., Werner, RA, Haberkern K.E, Illman, BL Clayton, M, K. & K. F. Raffa. 2005. Relative sources of variation in spruce beetle-fungal associations: Implications for sampling methodology and hypothesis testing in bark beetle-symbiont relationships. For. Ecol. & Manag..  217: 187-202.

 

Cardoza, Y. J., K. D. Klepzig & K. F. Raffa. 2006.  Bacteria in oral secretions of an endophytic insect inhibit antagonistic fungi.  Ecol. Entomol. 31: 636-645

 

Broderick, N.A., K. F. Raffa, K.F.  & J Handelsman.  2006. Midgut bacteria required for Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal activity. PNAS. 103: 15196-15199.

 

Little, A., C. J. Robinson, S.B. Peterson, K. F. Raffa & J. Handelsman. 2008. Rules of Engagement: Interspecies interactions that regulate microbial communities. Ann. Rev. Microbiology. 62: 375-401.

 

Vasanthakumar, A, I. J. Handelsman, P. Schloss, L. Bauer & K. F Raffa. 2008. Gut microbiota of an invasive wood boring beetle, the emerald ash borer: community composition and structure across different life stages. Environ. Entomol. 37: 1344-1353.

 

Klepzig, K.D., Adams, A.S., Handelsman, J., & K.F. Raffa. 2009. Symbioses: A key driver of insect physiological processes, ecological interactions, evolutionary diversification and impacts on humans. Environ. Entomol. 38: 67-77.

 

Broderick N. A., K. F. Raffa & J. Handelsman. 2010. Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis. BMC Biology. 10: 129; 13 pp.

 

Adams, AS, CK Boone, J Bohlmann & KF Raffa. 2011. Responses of bark beetle-associated bacteria to host monoterpenes, and their relationship to insect life histories. J. Chem. Ecol. 37:808–817.

 

Adams AS, Jordan MS, Adams SM, Suen G, Goodwin LA, Davenport KW, Currie CR, & Raffa KF. 2011. Community and genomic analysis of cellulose-degrading bacteria associated with the invasive woodwasp Sirex noctilio.  Intern. Soc. Microbial Ecology 5: 1323-1333

 

Adams AA, F Aylward, SM. Adams, N Erbilgin, B Aukema, C Currie, G Suen & KF Raffa. 2013. Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naïve host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism. Applied & Environ. Microbiology 79: 3468-3475.

 

Boone, CK, Adams AA, Bohlmann, J, Keefover-Ring, K, Mapes AC, & KF Raffa. 2013. Bacteria associated with a tree-killing insect reduce concentrations of plant defense compounds. J. Chem. Ecol. 39: 1003-1006.

 

Pfammatter JA Moser JC & KF Raffa. 2013. Mites phoretic on Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Wisconsin red pine stands. Annals Entomol. Soc. Amer. 106: 204-213

 

Mason, CJ & KF Raffa. 2014. Acquisition and structuring of larval midgut bacterial communities in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar).   Environ. Entomol. 43: 595‹604.

 

Mason, CJ, JJ Coutre & KF Raffa. 2014. Plant-associated bacteria degrade defense chemicals and reduce their adverse effects on an insect defoliator. Oecologia. 3:901-910.

 

Mason, CJ, Z Cannizzo, & KF Raffa. 2014. Influence of diet and density on laboratory cannibalism behaviors in gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar).J. Insect Behavior. 27: 693-700.

Mason, CJ, EL Zeldin, CR Currie, KF Raffa & BH McCown.  2014. Populations of uncultivated American cranberry in sphagnum bog communities harbor novel assemblages of Actinobacteria with antifungal properties Botany. 92: 589-595

 

Book A, Lewin G, McDonald B, Takasuka T, Doering D, Adams S, Blodgett J, Clardy J, Raffa, K, Fox B & Currie C. 2014. Cellulolytic Streptomyces strains associated with herbivorous insects share a phylogenetically-linked capacity for the degradation of lignocellulose. Applied & Env. Microbiol. 80:4692-4701.

 

Aylward, FO , G Suen, PHW Biedermann, AS Adams, JJ Scott, SA Malfatti, TG del Rio, SG Tringe, M Poulsen, KF Raffa, KD Klepzig & CR Currie. 2014. Convergence of bacterial microbiota in agriculture in insects. mBio. 5(6) doi:10.1128/mBio.02077-14.

 

Mason, CJ, JA. Pfammatter, LM Holeski & KF Raffa 2015. Foliar bacterial community of trembling aspen in a common garden. Can. J. Microbiol. 61: 143-149.

 

Mason CJ, Rubert-Nason, KF, Lindroth RL & KF Raffa. 2015. Aspen defense chemicals influence midgut bacterial community composition of gypsy moth. J. Chem. Ecol. 41: 75-84.

 

Therrien J, CJ Mason, A Adams, BH Aukema, CR Currie, KF Raffa & N Erbilgin. 2015. Bacteria influence mountain pine beetle brood development through interactions with symbiotic and opportunistic fungi: implications to climate-driven host range expansion. Oecologia. 179: 467-485.

 

Mason CJ, AS Hanshew & KF Raffa. 2015. Contributions by host trees and insect activity to bacterial communities in Dendroctonus valens LeConte galleries, and their high overlap with other microbial assemblages of bark beetles. 2016. Environ. Entomol. 45: 348-356.

 

Book AJ, Gina R. Lewin GR, McDonald BR, Takasuka TE, Wendt-Pienkowski E, Doering DT, Suh S, Raffa KF, Fox BG & Currie CR.  2016. Evolution of high cellulolytic activity in Streptomyces. PlosOneBiology. 14(6): e1002475. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002475.

Invasive Species

Krause, S.L., & K.F. Raffa.  1996.  Defoliation tolerance affects the spatial and temporal distributions of larch sawfly and natural enemy populations.  Ecol. Entomol.  21: 101-111.

 

Rieske, L.K., & K.F. Raffa.  1998.  Interactions among insect herbivore guilds: Influence of thrips-induced bud injury on phytochemistry and subsequent foliar suitability to gypsy moths.  J. Chem. Ecol. 24: 501-524.

 

Liebhold, A.M., K. Raffa, & A. Diss.  2005. Forest type affects predation on gypsy moth pupae in Wisconsin.  Agr. & For. Entomol.  7: 179-185.

 

Pinski, R.A., W.J. Mattson & K.F. Raffa. 2005. Composition, seasonal phenologies, and distribution of an invasive root-feeding weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex in northern hardwood forests. Environ. Entomol. 34: 298-307.

 

Werner, S.M., E.V. Nordheim, & K. F. Raffa. 2005.  Impacts of the Introduced Basswood Thrips (Thrips calcaratus Uzel) on Forest Health in the Great Lakes Region.  For. Ecol. & Manag.  214: 183-200.

 

Werner, S.M., M. Albers, T. Cryderman, D. Divini, R. Heyd, B Hrasovic , S Kobro, S Larsson, R. Mech, P. Niemela, M. Rousi, K Scanlon, S Weber & K. F. Raffa. 2005. Is the outbreak status of Thrips calcaratus Uzel in North America due to altered host relationships? For. Ecol. & Manag.  225: 200-206.

 

Gray, R.H., C. G. Lorimer,P.C. Tobin & K.F. Raffa. 2008. Pre-outbreak dynamics of a recently established invasive herbivore: Roles of natural enemies and habitat structure in stage-specific performance of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) populations in northeastern Wisconsin. Environ. Entomol. 37: 1174-1184.

 

Contarini, M, KS. Onufrieva, KW. Thorpe, KF Raffa & PC Tobin. 2009. Mate-finding failure as an important cause of Allee effects along the leading edge of an invading insect population. Entomol. Exper. Applic. 133:307-314.

 

Coyle, D R, WJ Mattson, & K. F. Raffa. 2010. Laboratory performance of polyphagous invasive weevils on the predominant woody plant species of a northern hardwood community. Environ. Entomol. 39: 1242-1248.

 

Coyle, DR, WJ Mattson, MS Jordan & KF Raffa. 2012. Variable host phenology does not pose a barrier to invasive weevils (Coleoptera:  Curculionidae) in a northern hardwood forest. Agric. & For. Entomol. 14: 276-285.

 

Coyle DR, WJ Mattson Jr., AL Friend & KF Raffa. 2014. Effects of an invasive herbivore at the single plant scale do not extend to population scale seedling dynamics. Can. J. For. Res. 44: 8-16.

 

Johnson TD, Lelito,JP, Pfammatter JA & Raffa KF. 2016. Evaluation of tree mortality and parasitoid recoveries on the contiguous western invasion edge of emerald ash borer. Agr. & For. Entomol.  DOI: 10.1111/afe.12164