Here is an article from the Wisconsin State Cranberry Growers’ Association newsletter about recent research in the Steffan lab:
Cranberries and spotted wing Drosophila (SWD) in Wisconsin
Shawn Steffan (USDA-ARS Madison, WI), Jana Lee (USDA-ARS Corvallis, OR), Laura Lavine (Washington State University), Doug Walsh (Washington State University), Chase Metzger (Washington State University), Juan Zalapa (USDA-ARS Madison, WI), Christelle Guédot (University of Wisconsin-Madison), and Phil Pellitteri (University of Wisconsin-Madison).
This holiday season, there will be one demographic that won’t want to eat fresh cranberries: spotted wing Drosophila maggots. Drosophila suzukii, commonly known as SWD, does not appear to like cranberries very much. Following multiple replicated trials using ripe, under-ripe, and over-ripe organic Wisconsin cranberries, SWD females would not (or could not) insert eggs into under-ripe or ripe cranberries. This suggests that healthy, current-year fruit should be safe from attack.
Among the over-ripe, decaying cranberries (harvested, frozen, thawed, refrigerated) just two eggs were found among many berries, but no mature larvae were detected, and no adults emerged. Fortunately, rotting fruit don’t make it into the harvest because they generally don’t float. Decaying fruit get devoured every spring and summer by other drosophilid flies (see photograph above), various beetles, and countless hordes of mites and springtails.
While none of the SWD larvae successfully developed within the highly acidic flesh of fresh cranberries, studies using physically damaged cranberries showed that SWD could develop to adulthood. Again, these berries represented wounded, decaying fruit, not the sort of berries that would get harvested. That said, SWD populations could build within cranberry beds and potentially play a role in regional source-sink dynamics.
Unfortunately, SWD females love blueberries and raspberries—this we learned early. The good news for cranberry growers is that SWD adults have only rarely been trapped in/near cranberry beds, and in these cases, a blueberry or raspberry patch was nearby.
So, the take-home message: current-year cranberries (that aren’t damaged and/or rotting) appear to be safe from SWD attack. Conversely, last-year’s decaying bounty of unharvested cranberries may be vulnerable. SWD populations will likely be found each spring and summer in fruit-growing regions, but the risk to cranberry production seems minimal.
If you are suspicious of any infested fruit, contact your local Extension agent.
For other fruit crops, here is a list of resources that may be helpful:
University of Wisconsin Extension has released an article on Spotted Wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, with several suggestions for scouting and trapping the fruit flies.
Online Cranberry Integrated Pest Management Tool Available from Rutgers University
Rutgers University has a great online IPM tool, PestWeb, for cranberry, blueberry, brambles, grape, and peach. The database categorizes information by chemical, type (e.g. herbicide, insect growth regulator), and crop. For instance, if a search is entered for all herbicides, the database reports the list of herbicides along with links to the label information, material safety data sheets and any supplementary material.
How to Create a Website for your Business
The purpose of this article is to introduce the basic steps of creating a website.
Planning your website
This is a fundamental step where you ask yourself about the goals for the website. Do you want to sell products online, advertise services or products available on-site, or provide information? Go here, for a great article with many general and more specific design issues to consider.
Building your website
This is the step where you find a template and add your content. A template frames your content into pages with a menu, and a banner. Suggested do-it-yourself online services:
|www.wordpress.com||The templates from WordPress were originally designed for bloggers. Some of the templates require substantial modification to remove the blog features and create a website that has a business-oriented design. Alternatively, StudioPress has developed several sophisticated templates that can be used with WordPress.|
|www.yola.com||This service provides lots of business-themed templates but your content will be difficult to move to another service if you decide to switch.|
Getting your site on the web
Broadcasting your website on the web is called hosting. One recommended hosting website is hostgator.com.
Need help? Consider hiring a private consultant to help build, critique, or optimize your website.
Lucerne Moths Visit Cranberry Beds in Wisconsin in Big Numbers
Tim Dittl, an Agricultural Scientist at Ocean Spray Cranberries and a collaborator, discusses recent sightings of the Lucerne moth in Wisconsin. See below for his article:
This spring, I’ve been receiving several reports of moths flying in beds from Juneau all the way up to Vilas Co. While scouting the fields this week I was fortunate enough to be able to take some pictures of the moths and send them off to Phil Pellitteri, our State Entomologist in Madison, for positive identification. Funny thing, they all appear to be the same critter, the Lucerne Moth or Clover Nomophila, Nomophila neartica, a member of the family Pyralidae or snout moths. Although both Cranberry Girdler and Cranberry Fruitworm belong to this same family of moths, the Lucerne Moth has never been recorded as a pest of Cranberry, not yet anyway.
Lucerne moth larvae typically feed on clover, alfalfa, celery, smartweed and grasses and are sometimes referred to as the “false sod webworm.” Well, we certainly have clover, smartweed and grasses in and around the beds and on the dikes. The literature also states that they are common to Wisconsin, sometimes migrating to the far north. Their activity period ranges from April through October.
Adult: at rest, wings are overlapped and hugged against abdomen, giving a long and narrow profile; forewing elongate, grayish-brown with two side-by-side dark oval spots near middle of wing, and another dark bi-lobed spot a little farther out; hindwing much broader than forewing, pale brownish-gray with whitish fringe.
Larvae: head black; abdomen variably light brown to dark gray with bumpy surface and sparse long hairs; thin dark dorsal line bordered by narrow pale strip. See pictures: Adult photo taken by Christine Ellis, Ocean Spray Cranberries.; larval photo taken from the World Wide Web.
Recently, a lot of mowing operations have been taking place on the marsh and this certainly may be helping drive them into the beds. I’m not sure that we’ll see any problems with them feeding on Cranberry this year, but we need to be aware of their presence and be on the look-out for any unusual insect activity going forward. What a strange year it’s been!
Free workshop on commercializing food products
The WDATCP is offering a free workshop to learn how to commercialize food products at the farm. It will be held on Friday, June 1, 2012 from 10:30 AM until 3:00 PM. To see the flyer, click here.
Weekly update from UW Extension on insects, plant diseases, and wildlife
Do you want to know what is going on in the fields, woods, and backyards of Wisconsin? The University of Wisconsin Extension Horticulture program publishes weekly updates through the growing season on special topics with regular appearances by Phil Pellitteri of the Insect Diagnostic lab and Brian Hudelson of the Plant Disease Diagnostic lab.
For the weekly update main page, go here.
For the May 5th podcast, go here.
For the May 5th written summary, go here.
UW-Entomology and Extension’s Phil Pellitteri discusses pollinators on the Wisconsin Gardener
Phil Pellitteri runs the Insect Diagnostic Lab in the Entomology Department at UW-Madison. Last Spring, Phil met with Shelley Ryan of The Wisconsin Gardener to discuss pollinator issues and how to encourage native solitary bees including an egg-laying box for mason bees. Here is the link to the video.
Wisconsin may open a hunting season for the sandhill crane, the cranberry’s namesake
Recently, a debate has erupted among Wisconsin’s citizens about the opening of a sandhill crane hunting season. The cranberry, or as it was once known “the crane berry”, owes its name to the sandhill crane because of the cranberry blossom’s resemblance to it, according to the Wisconsin Cranberry Growers Association.
Cranberry growers continue to practice conservation efforts on their marshes to preserve the sandhill crane population. However, many field crop farmers strongly object when the cranes devour their corn. Eileen Cullen of UW-Madison’s Entomology Department and Cooperative Extension discusses this issue in an interview. The International Crane Foundation, based in Baraboo, WI, is opposed to a sandhill crane hunting season in Wisconsin. Their website has links to the latest developments in the debate.
For more information, several news outlets have published articles, including The New York Times and The Green Bay Press Gazette. Channel 3 (Madison, WI) has a video of their news story that includes the cranes and interviews with people on both sides of the issue.
New Research on Neonicotinoids and Bees in Science Magazine
Two studies investigating the effects of neonicotinoids on bees were just published online in Science magazine.
Link to “Field Research on Bees Raises Concerns About Low-Dose Pesticides”,